Manual Therapy, Posturology & Rehabilitation Journal
Manual Therapy, Posturology & Rehabilitation Journal
Research Article

Postural phenotype assessment in pupils: a new clinic approach

Nascimento, Luana Karina de Almeida; Miranda, Cristiano Barreto de; Nascimento Filho, Flávio Martins do; Cerqueira, Felipe Lima de; Araújo, Maria das Graças Rodrigues de; Gois Júnior, Miburge Bolívar

Downloads: 1
Views: 488


Introduction: Most of the postural problems originate during puberty, when the body structure is in the process of development and the hormonal release predisposes the differentiated growth between the gender, which can interfere in the posture and balance of the individual. Objective: To analyze the postural phenotypic parameters in school adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 72 adolescents with age between 10 and 15 years from a public school in the city of Lagarto, Sergipe. The subjects were divided into two groups according to gender (G1: female group; G2: male group) and age subgroups (SB1: adolescents with 10-12 years; SB2: adolescents with 13-15 years), homogeneous in relation to BMI. The research consisted of the collection of anthropometric and clinical data, backpack weighing, static postural evaluation through biophotogrammetry and measurement of stabilometric parameters through a force platform. Results: The individuals presented reduced mobility of the spine and did not overload the school backpack. The prevalence of scoliosis and scoliotic attitudes was 33.32% and more frequentily in the G2. As for the postural angles, the G1 presented knee valgus, hyperextension of the knee and lumbar hyperlordosis, differently, the G2 was characterized with forward inclination of the body, knee flexion, cervical hyperlordosis and thoracic hyperkyphosis. There was no difference in body balance variables between gender, besides the correlation between postural alignment and balance. Conclusion: The study suggests that the phase of corporal development in the school period favors postural phenotypic differentiations.


Posture, Body Balance, Adolescent, Gender


1. Rogol AD, Roemmich JN, Clark PA. Growth at puberty. Journal of Adolescent Health 2002;31:192-200.

2. Shehab DK, Jarallah KF. Nonspecific low-back pain in Kuwaiti children and adolescents: associated factors. Journal Adolescent Health 2005;36(1):32-5.

3. Straker LM, O’Sullivan PB, Smith A, Perry M. Computer Use and Habitual Spinal Posture in Australian Adolescents. Public Health Rep 2007;122(5):634–643.

4. Kee IK, Byun JS, Jung JK, Choi JK. The presence of altered craniocervical posture and mobility in smartphone-addicted teenagers with temporomandibular disorders. J Phys Ther Sci 2016;28(2):339-46.

5. Fonseca CD, Cardoso Dos Santos A, Candotti CT, Noll M, Luz AM, Corso CO. Postural education and behavior among students in a city in southern Brazil: student postural education and behavior. B J Phys Ther Sci 2015;27(9):2907-11.

6. Sakullertphasuk W, Suwanasri C, Saetang L, Siri N, Junsiri P, Yotsungnoen S, et al. Prevalence of Scoliosis among High School Students. J Med Assoc Thai 2015;98(5):18-22.

7. Paananen MV, Auvinen JP, Taimela SP, Tammelin TH, Kantomaa MT, Ebeling HE. Phychosocial, mechanical, and metabolic factors in adolescents’ musculoskeletal pain in multiple locations: a cross-sectional study. European Jounal of Pain 2010;4:395-401.

8. Sedrez JA, Rosa MIZ, Noll M, Medeiros FS, Candotti CT. Risk factors associated with structural postural changes in the spinal column of children and adolescents. Rev Paul Pediatr 2015;33(1):72–81.

9. Lafond D, Descarreaux M, Normand MC, Harrison DE. Postural development in school children: a cross-sectional study. Chiropr Osteopat 2007;15:1.

10. Mac-Thiong J-M, Labelle H, Roussouly P. Pediatric sagittal alignment. Eur Spine J 2011;20(5):586–590.

11. Dolphens M, Cagnie B, Vleeming A, Vanderstraeten G, Coorevits P, Danneels L. A clinical postural model of sagittal alignment in young adolescents before age at peak height velocity. European Spine Journal. 2012;21(11):2188-2197.

12. Dolphens M, Cagnie B, Vleeming A, Vanderstraeten G, Danneels L. Gender differences in sagittal standing alignment before pubertal peak growth: the importance of subclassification and implications for spinopelvic loading. J Anat 2013;223(6):629–640.

13. Neuschwander TB, Cutrone J, Macias BR, Cutrone S, Murthy G, Chambers H, et al. The effect of backpacks on the lumbar spine in children: a standing magnetic resonance imaging study. Spine 2010;35(1):83-8.

14. Walicka-Cupryś K, Skalska-Izdebska R, Rachwał M, Truszczyńska A. Influence of the Weight of a School Backpack on Spinal Curvature in the Sagittal Plane of Seven-Year-Old Children. BioMed Research International 2015;6.

15. Drza-Grabiec J, Snela S, Rykała J, Podgórska J, Rachwal M. Effects of the sitting position on the body posture of children aged 11 to 13 years. Work 2015;51(4):855-62.

16. World Health Organization (WHO). Adolescent health and development 2007. Disponível em:

17. Ferreira EAG, Duarte M, Maldonado EP, Bersanetti AA, Marques AP. Quantitative Assessment of Postural Alignment in Young Adults Based on Photographs of Anterior, Posterior, and Lateral Views. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2011;34(6):371-380.

18. Tsirikos AI, Garrido EG. Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in children and adolescents.J Bone Joint Surg Br 2010;92:751–759.

19. Lamari NM, Marino LHC, Cordeiro JA, Pellegrini AM. Trunk anterior flexibility in adolescents after height growth speed peak. Acta ortop. bras 2007;15(1).

20. Filipovic V, Stalec NV. The Mobility Capabilities of Persons With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Spine 2006;31(19):2237-2242.

21. Zhang H, Guo C, Tang M, Liu S, Li J, Guo Q, et al. Prevalence of scoliosis among primary and middle school students in Mainland China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Spine 2015;40(1):41-9.

22. Baroni MP, Sanchis GJ, De Assis SJ, dos Santos RG, Pereira AS, Sousa KG, et al. Factors associated with scoliosis in schoolchildren: a crosssectional population-based study. J Epidemiol 2015;25(3):212-20.

23. Ramprasad M, Alias J, Raghuveer AK. Effect of backpack weight on postural angles in preadolescent children. Indian Pediatr 2010;47(7):575-80.

24. Holden S, Boreham C, Delahunt E. Sex Differences in Landing Biomechanics and Postural Stability During Adolescence: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analyses. Sports Med 2016;46(2):241-53.

25. Fulkerson JP, Arendt EA. Anterior knee pain in females. Clin Orthop 2000;372:69- 73.

26. Coelho JJ, Graciosa MD, Medeiros DL, Pacheco SCS, Costa LMR, Ries LGK. Influence of flexibility and gender on the posture of school children. Rev Paul Pediatr 2014;32(3):223−228.

27. Veiga PH, Daher CR, Morais MF. Postural alterations and flexibility of the posterior chain in soccer´s injuries. Rev Bras Cienc Esporte 2011;33:235-48.

28. Shultz SJ, Sander TC, Kirk SE, Perrin DH. Sex differences in knee joint laxity change across the female menstrual cycle. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2005;45(4):594–603.

29. Dedrick GS, Sizer PS, Merkle JN, Hounshell TR, Robert-McComb JJ, Sawyer SF, et al. Effect of sex hormones on neuromuscular control patterns during landing. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2008;18(1):68-78.

30. Whitcome KK, Shapiro LJ, Lieberman DE. Fetal load and the evolution of lumbar lordosis in bipedal hominins. Nature 2007;450:1075–1078.

5a9ede240e8825ec2177d856 mtprehab Articles
Links & Downloads

Man. Ther., Posturology Rehabil. J.

Share this page
Page Sections