Manual Therapy, Posturology & Rehabilitation Journal
http://mtprehabjournal.com/article/doi/10.17784/mtprehabJournal.2016.14.361
Manual Therapy, Posturology & Rehabilitation Journal
Review

Evaluation of isometric strength in people with spinal cord injury: a review

Lima, Jamile Ada Nascimento de; Oliveira, Saulo Fernandes Melo de; Oliveira, Lúcia Inês Gedes Leite de; Costa, Manoel da Cunha

Downloads: 0
Views: 377

Abstract

Introduction: isometric muscle strength in people with spinal cord injury is usually associated with locomotor activity, posture maintenance and activities of daily living. However, the variety of methods available for the evaluation hinders decision making on the part of the professionals involved. Objective: our objective was to review the literature of the area and determine the evaluation methods of isometric force and relationships with other components of health and physical fitness of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: consulted if the sites BIREME-Medline and SciELO, under the terms “spinal cord injury”, “paraplegia”, “tetraplegia”, “wheelchair athletes” and “disabilities athletes,” “isometric strength”, “handgrip” and “ handheld “with the help of the Boolean AND operator. Results: they were found 18 studies that met the inclusion criteria. The equipment available, the manual dynamometer is the most used. Sophisticated equipment can evaluate force components with increased functionality. There were no significant changes in hemodynamic variables during isometric strength tests. In conclusion, good isometric strength levels appear to correlate with increased functionality of people with SCI. Conclusion: however, they are lacking reference values related to the isometric strength for this population, especially when tested handgrip.

Keywords

Muscular strength. Physical activity. People with disabilities.

References

1. Janssen TW, Dallmeijer AJ, Veeger D, & van der Woude LH. Normative values and determinants of physical capacity in individuals with spinal cord injury. Journal of rehabilitation research and development. 2002;39(1):29.

2. O’Sullivan S, Schmitz T. Fisioterapia: avaliação e tratamento. Manole; 2004.

3. Van Straaten MG, Cloud BA, Morrow MM, Ludewig PM, Zhao KD. Effectiveness of home exercise on pain, function, and strength of manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury: a high-dose shoulder program with telerehabilitation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014; 95(10):1810–7.e2

4. Mercer JL, Boninger M, Koontz A, Ren D, Dyson-Hudson T, Cooper R. Shoulder joint kinetics and pathology in manual wheelchair users. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2006;21(8):781–9.

5. Powers CM, Newsam CJ, Gronley JK, Fontaine CA, Perry J. Isometric shoulder torque in subjects with spinal cord injury. [Internet]. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 1994; p. 761–5.

6. Serra-Añó P, Pellicer-Chenoll M, García-Massó X, Morales J, Giner-Pascual M, González L-M. Effects of resistance training on strength, pain and shoulder functionality in paraplegics. Spinal Cord [Internet]. International Spinal Cord Society; 2012;50(11):827–31.

7. Nooijen CFJ, de Groot S, Postma K, Bergen MP, Stam HJ, Bussmann JBJ, et al. A more active lifestyle in persons with a recent spinal cord injury benefits physical fitness and health. Spinal Cord. 2012;50(4):320–3.

8. Rosety-Rodriguez M, Rosety I, Fornieles G, Rosety JM, Elosegui S, Rosety MA, et al. A short-term arm-crank exercise program improved testosterone deficiency in adults with chronic spinal cord injury. Int Braz J Urol. 2014;40(3):367–72.

9. Sisto SA, Dyson-Hudson T. Dynamometry testing in spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2007;44(1):123–36.

10. Hall S. Biomecânica Básica. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan; 2003.

11. Hamill. Bases Biomecânicas do Movimento Humano. Barueri: Manole; 1999.

12. Marciello MA, Herbison GJ, Ditunno JFJ, Marino RJ, Cohen ME. Wrist strength measured by myometry as an indicator of functional independence. J Neurotrauma. 1995;12(1):99–106.

13. Thomas J, Nelson J, Silverman S. Métodos de pesquisa em atividade física. 2002nd ed. Artmed, editor. Artmed; 2002.

14. Guedes DP. Manual prático para avaliação em educação física. São Paulo: Manole; 2005.

15. Davis GM, Shephard RJ, Leenen FHH. Cardiac effects of short term arm crank training in paraplegics: echocardiographic evidence. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1987;56(1):90–6.

16. Burns P, Kressler J, Nash MS. Physiological Responses to Exergaming After Spinal Cord Injury. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil [Internet]. 2012;18(4):331–9.

17. Freund P, Weiskopf N, Ward NS, Hutton C, Gall A, Ciccarelli O, et al. Disability, atrophy and cortical reorganization following spinal cord injury. Brain [Internet]. 2011;134(Pt 6):1610–22.

18. Das B, Black NL. Isometric pull and push strengths of paraplegics in the workspace: 1. Strength measurement profiles. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2000;6(1):47–65.

19. Stevens SL, Fuller DK, Morgan DW. Leg strength, preferred walking speed, and daily step activity in adults with incomplete spinal cord injuries. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil [Internet]. 2013;19(1):47–53.

20. Gabison S, Verrier MC, Nadeau S, Gagnon DH, Roy A, Flett HM. Trunk strength and function using the multidirectional reach distance in individuals with non-traumatic spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med [Internet]. 2014;37(5):537–47.

21. Black NL, Das B. A three-dimensional computerized isometric strength measurement system. Appl Ergon. 2007;38(3):285–92.

22. Memberg WD, Murray WM, Ringleb SI, Kilgore KL, Snyder SA. A transducer to measure isometric elbow moments. Clin Biomech. 2001;16(10):918–20.

23. Petrofsky JS. Blood pressure and heart rate response to isometric exercise: the effect of spinal cord injury in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol [Internet]. 2001;85(6):521–6.

24. Petrofsky JS, Laymon M. Blood pressure and heart rate responses during a fatiguing isometric exercise in paraplegic men with hypertension. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000;83(4-5):274–82.

25. Petrofsky J, Laymon M. The effect of ageing in spinal cord injured humans on the blood pressure and heart rate responses during fatiguing isometric exercise. 2002; Eur J Appl Physiol [Internet]. 86(6):479–86.

26. Hobbs SF, Gandevia SC. Cardiovascular responses and the sense of effort during attempts to contract paralysed muscles: role of the spinal cord. Neuroscience letters. 1985;57(1):85-90.

5a9ee6ea0e8825242b77d857 mtprehab Articles
Links & Downloads

Man. Ther., Posturology Rehabil. J.

Share this page
Page Sections