Effects of Pilates on postural balance and functional autonomy of elderly: a randomized controlled trial
Oliveira, Lais Campos de; Pires-Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de A.; Prado, Rafaela Claudia Alves do; Oliveira, Danielle Pereira D’avanso de; Antônio, Tiago Del; Oliveira, Rodrigo Franco de; Oliveira, Raphael Gonçalves de
Introduction: The Pilates method has become popular as a form of exercise, with good acceptance among the elderly, however, some variables need to be further explored, as the functional autonomy and postural balance. Objective: An objective of this study was to verify the effects of the Pilates method, based on the functional autonomy and postural balance in elderly women. Method: We recruited 24 volunteers who were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (GE) who performed Pilates (n=12); Control Group (CG) who performed exercise static stretching (n=12). Both had a frequency of twice a week for eight weeks. The evaluations consisted of a battery of tests for functional autonomy of the elderly, the Group of Latin-American Development to the Maturity (GDLAM) protocol, six-minute walk test and static postural balance on a force platform. Results: The results showed significant results for GE in two tests of functional autonomy and the overall rate of functional autonomy (p<0.05). Differences for the other tests were not found. Conclusions: The intervention protocol with Pilates, allowed the improvement of functional autonomy in elderly women, not having an effect on the six-minute walk test and the postural balance.
1. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Idosos no mundo. Internet site address:
2. Pérez VSC, Haas AN, Wolff SS. Analysis of activities in the daily live of older adults exposed to the Pilates Method. J Bodyw Mov Ther.2013;18(3):326- 31.
3. Pata RW, Lord K, Lamb J. The effect of Pilates based exercise on mobility, postural stability, and balance in order to decrease fall risk in older adults. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2013;18(3):361-7.
4. Hyun J, Hwangbo K, Lee C. The effects of Pilates Mat exercise on the Balance Ability of elderly females. J Phys Ther Sci. 2013;26(2):291-3.
5. Geraldo LVOB, Moraes AMN, Fonseca HR, Emerick RF, Deslandes SEAC. Relationship between level of Independence in activities of daily living and estimated cardiovascular capacity in elderly women. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2014;59(2):367-71.
6. Di Lorenzo. Pilates: what is it? Should it be used in rehabilition. Sports Health. 2011;3(4):352-61.
7. Shea S, Moriello G. Feasibility and outcomes of a classical Pilates program on lower extremity strength, posture, balance, gait, and quality of life in someone with impartiments due to a stroke. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2013;18(3):332-60.
8. Rodrigues BGS, Cader AS, Torres NVOB, Oliveira EM, Dantas EHM. Pilates method in personal autonomy, static balance and quality of life of elderly females. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2010;14(2):195-202.
9. Hughes MA, Duncan PW, Rose DK, Chandler JM, Studenski SA. The relationship of postural sway to sensoriomotor function, functional performance, and disability in the elderly. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;77(6):567-72.
10. Sipila S, Multanen J, Kallinen M, Era P, Suominen H. Effects of strength and endurance training on isometric muscle strenght and walking speed in elderly women. Acta Physiol Scand. 1996;156(4)457-64.
11. Guralnik JM, Simonsick EM, Ferucci L, Glynn RJ, Robert J, Berk-man LF, et al. A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admission. J Gerontol. 1994;49(2):85-94.
12. Alexander nb, Ulbrich J, Raheja A, Channer D. Rising from the floors in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1997;45(5):564-69.
13. Andreotti R, Okuma SS. Validação de uma bateria de testes de atividades da vida diária para idosos fisicamente independentes. Rev Paul Educ Fis. 1999;13(1):46-66.
14. Vale RGS, Pernambuco CS, Novaes JS, Dantas EHM. Teste de autonomia funcional: vestir e tirar uma camiseta (VTC). Rev Bras Cienc Mov. 2006;14(3):71-8.
15. Dantas EHM, Vale RGS, Pernambuco CS. Protocolo GDLAM de avaliação da autonomia funcional. Fit Perform J. 2004;3(3):175-83.
16. Silva RA, Bilodeau M, Parreira RB, Teixeira DC, Amorim CF. Age-related differences in time-limit performance and force platform-based balance measures during one-leg stance. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2013;23(3):634-9.
17. Jones CJ, Rikli RE. Senior Fitness Test Manual. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2001.
18. Borg GAV. Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1982;14(5):377-81.
19. Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR, Franklin BA, Lamonte MJ, Lee IM. et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(7):1334-59.
20. Fourie M, Gildenhuys GM, Shaw I, Shaw BS, Toriola AL, Goon DT. Effects of a mat Pilates programme on muscular strength and endurance in elderly women. Afr J Phys Health Education Recreation Dance. 2012;18(2):299-307.
21. Gildenhuys GM, Fourie M, Shaw I, Shaw BS, Toriola AL, Witthuhn J. Evaluation of Pilates training on agility, functional mobility and cardiorespiratory fitness in elderly women. Afr J Phys Health Education Recreation Dance. 2013;19(2):505-12.
22. Irez GB, Ozdemir RA, Evin R, Irez SG, Korkusuz F. Integrating Pilates exercise into an exercise program for 65+ year-old women to reduce falls. J Sports Sci Med. 2011;10(1):105-11.
23. Plachy JK, Kovách MV, Bognár J. Improving flexibility and endurance of elderly women through a six-month training programme. Hum Mov. 2012;13(1):p.22-7.
24. Timson, BF, Falls HB, Wilson TE, Zimmerman SD. Effect of muscle strength on VO2 plateau occurrence rate. Isokinet Exerc Sci. 2008;16(4):231-7.
25. Milton D, Porcari JP, Foster C, Gibson M, Undermann B, Greany J, et al. The effect of functional exercise training of functional fitness levels of older adults. Gundersen Lutheran Med J. 2008;5(1):1-5.
26. Bird ML, Hill KD, Fell JW. A randomized controlled study investigating static and dynamic balance in older adults after training with pilates. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;93(1):43-9.